REGENERATE – Lead Battery Recycling

REGENERATE – sustainable recycling for lead batteries

85% reduction in the
carbon footprint

100% reduction in noxious
gas emissions

4K MWh saved for every
10K tonnes processed

90% less waste:
direct route to PbO!

saves 10 – 20% on
PbO production

nanostructured PbO
improves battery specs

The lead-acid battery (LAB) is the world’s most successfully
recycled commodity product…

… and possesses the largest market share in energy storage – due to surpass $85bn by 2026.
In the US, 100% of these batteries are recycled while in the EU the recycling rate is up to 95%.
LAB recycling is successful because lead is infinitely recyclable and the economics work – even
though smelting, the incumbent industry which recycles lead batteries, is polluting and wasteful!

Lead batteries are safe, proven and low-cost. They are used widely in the automotive, traction
and uninterruptible power supply sectors. As the world shifts towards a circular economy, lead
batteries could support our transition to zero waste – but for this to happen, the smelting
industry must become cleaner and less wasteful.

Our innovative process for the recycling of LAB paste will catalyse this change, breathing new
life into the lead battery industry by lowering costs and reducing impact on the environment.
Our nanostructured lead oxides will pave the way to an enhanced, next-generation battery.

The Process

mechanical separation

mixing and filtration



Our approach is to desulphurise the battery paste before passing it through a series of chemical
treatment steps in water media. The lead is firstly dissolved to extract impurities. Then, the lead salts
are converted, via chemical reaction with citric acid, to a pure lead citrate. Next, the lead citrate is
calcined to produce 99.99% pure lead oxide of various compositions required by manufacturers.

The wet chemical process manufacturing 99.99% lead citrate has been validated in a 10,000 tonne
per annum system.  The next and final phase in the development of this technology is testing
leady oxide compositions in commercial batteries. We have partnered with the University of
Cambridge and a publicly listed company to carry out these tests. Contact us to discuss licensing
and early adopter opportunities.